The first inns date back to
medieval times when the inn was a place offering travellers shelter for the
night and something to eat and drink. These
early inns were provided by hospitable monks and one must assume that the first
inn in Partney was provided by the monks of St Mary Magdalene Chapel,
rediscovered in the course of the archaeological excavations during the building
of the bypass in 2004.
In the 19th Century the would-be
tippler not only had the choice of traditionally licensed public houses and
hotels but also an additional tier of establishments in the form of the now long
forgotten beer houses. Strange as
it may seem today beer houses were actually created by an Act of Parliament
which in part was aimed at reducing the amount of public drunkenness.
Public drunkenness it was said was
in large measure due to a reduction in the duty on gin and the consequent rise
in the number of (often unlicensed) gin palaces.
It was a provision within the 1830 Beer Act therefore which brought into
being an entirely new tier of drinking establishment - the beer house - which
being licensed only for six days a week (i.e. not Sundays) for the sale only of
beer and cider (not wine and spirits) was considered by some concerned parties
as being of assistance towards helping entice the populace away from its
excessive consumption of gin.
Legislation was such that almost
any householder on payment of two guineas could apply to the local magistrates
for a license to sell beer on his premises. Although beer houses became a
distinct and well loved facet of town and village life the aim of many of their
keepers was to upgrade their establishments to the status of a fully licensed
public house able to sell not only beer but wines and spirits as well.
In the 19th
Century there were two public houses in Partney; The Red Lion which is still
open today and The White Hart which is now the house known as The Old Posting House.
There was also a beer house, The White Horse which stood on the site of the
One thing that can be said
is that the pubs did not distinguish themselves with original names – The Red
Lion is the second most common pub name in the UK, the White Hart the sixth and
the White Horse the eighth.
The Red Lion is the
name of over six hundred pubs, outnumbered only by The Crown.
The lion is one of the most common charges in coats of arms, second only
to the cross. The Red Lion as a pub
sign therefore has multiple origins; in the arms or crest of a local landowner,
as a personal badge of John of Gaunt founder of the House of Lancaster or in the
royal arms of Scotland conjoined to the arms of England after the Stuart
succession in 1603.
The White Hart was
the emblem of King Richard II and became so popular as an inn sign during his
reign that it was adopted by many later inns and pubs.
Richard II introduced legislation compelling public houses to display a
sign and at one time the White Hart was almost a trademark in the same was that
we call a vacuum cleaner a Hoover today!
A galloping White Horse
is the sign of the House of Hanover and many 18th century inns
adopted the symbol to demonstrate their loyalty to the new royal dynasty.
The Red Lion
The above photograph is believed to show the pub during the
period Albert Johnson was the Innkeeper.
The first mention of the history of the Red Lion is in Whites Lincolnshire Gazetteer and Directory of 1842. In talking about the mediaeval hospital and monastery it says “…many human bones have been dug up in the parish, especially in 1826, when the foundations of the Red Lion Inn were excavated.”
Later, in 1871 several skulls were unearthed when sinking a well and in 1891, whilst laying a drain, twenty human skeletons were discovered. (History and Events of Spilsby, Partney and Langton by Freda Royle, published c.2004)
The History, Gazetteer & Directory of Lincolnshire of 1856 records Andrew Joseph as being a brewer and victualler at the premises. At this time the village had one other public house, The White Hart, and 4 breweries and 2 malt kilns!
Records of the landlords of the pub have been extracted from a number of local directories and national Census records as follows:
Joseph Andrew was born in Partney in 1804. He occupied the Inn in 1851 with his wife, Fanny and four of their daughters, Elizabeth Ann (9), Fanny (8), Mary Hellen (6) and Georgiana (3). Also living with them was 15 year old William Brown described as ‘son-in-law’ and working as an ostler and brewer, their niece Mary Johnson a 24 year old barmaid, a lodger George Thompson, a servant, Eliza Ann Bradshaw and Richard Bell, a Horse Man. By 1861 the family had moved to Leicester.
James Watson is shown occupying the Red Lion on the 1861 Census with his wife Ann. He was born in Partney in 1811, she in Calceby the same year. The only other occupant was their son, James, born in Partney in 1838. James senior is shown on the 1841 and 1851 Censuses as working as a Farm Labourer, living in Partney. Ann was widowed in 1863 and by 1871 lived as a housekeeper in Withern.
George Widall was born in Thorpe, Lincolnshire in 1831. He occupied the Red Lion in 1871 with his wife Martha, born in Kirkby-on-Bain, his son George (aged 8, born in Partney) and a servant, Betsy Thompson. Also living with them were two boarders, Smith Fowler a bricklayer and Alfred Goodwin, a farmer’s son. He occupied the Red Lion in 1881 with his wife Martha, his daughter Annie (aged 16) and grandson Hedley, just 1 month old. They also had a servant, Harriet Keal, living with them. By 1891 The Widall’s had moved to another pub, The Malsters Arms Inn at Hundleby. Martha died in 1893 and George ended up in the Hundleby Workhouse by 1901, until his death in 1905.
Albert Johnson was born in Horsington, Lincolnshire in 1855. In 1891 he was living in the pub with his wife Lucy Annie, and their five children, Lucy (12), Charlotte (11), Harry (9), Charles (7) and Elfrida (5). Also living with them were his widowed father, John and a lodger, Ruben Ranshaw, a carpenter. The Johnson family had lived in Partney in 1881, in the ‘centre of the village’. Albert was a corn miller and presumably had just moved to the village as the eldest daughter, Lucy, was born in Sutterton in 1879 and the younger daughter, Charlotte was born in Partney in 1880.
Lucy Johnson was born in Spilsby in 1855. Widowed in 1900, she occupied the pub with her 2 sons and 2 daughters in 1901. Her eldest daughter, Lucy was a mother’s help whilst her eldest son, Harry was a painter’s apprentice. The younger son, Charles was a groom whilst Elfrida was only 14 at the time of the Census and is not recorded as officially working. Her son Charles was killed in the First World War and by 1919 she was living, aged 65, at Partney Mill.
Ash Holt was born in Denton, Lincolnshire on 9th August 1851.
. In 1871 he worked as a
Postillion at Denton Hall and by 1881 he was working as a groom at The Hall,
Ashby de la Laund, Lincoln. By 1891
he had found work as a Coachman in Bloxham, Lincolnshire. He died in 1932.
George Baggott was born in Orford, Suffolk in 1857. He married Sarah Ann in 1881 in Stourbridge, Suffolk. In 1881 they were living in Common Road, Sudbourne, Suffolk and George was working as an agricultural labourer. The 1911 Census included their children, Alfred, a domestic groom, and Ethel who was assisting in the business. They had left the pub by 1913 when George Wilson took over as licensee.
The above picture is taken from a 1910 postcard and shows the pub sign
The earliest record of the White
Hart is found in Pigot & Co’s Directory of Lincolnshire for 1835. This shows William Thompson as the publican and he is again
recorded as its publican in their 1841 Directory, from information gathered in
previous years. However, the 1841
Census shows William Bonnett and family in residence.
Records of the landlords of the pub have been extracted from a number of local directories and national Census records as follows:
was born in 1801 in Hundleby, Lincolnshire.
He remained resident in Partney after leaving the White Hart, working as
a malster and living with his wife Elizabeth.
By 1851 he was widowed and still living in Partney.
He was now farming 70 acres as well as working as a malster and brewer.
He had three servants. By
1861 he had remarried and was living on Sausthorpe Lane.
His 81 year old mother was now living with him and his brother and their
three servants. He was still
farming, brewing and malsting. By
1871, still residing on Sauthorpe Lane, aged
70, he lived with his sister and four servants.
His farm had increased to 86 acres and he was still a brewer and malster.
He employed two labourers on the farm.
He died in 1877.
was born in Wigtoft in Lincolnshire in 1790.
He died in 1843. His widow Ann
Bonnett continued to run the White Hart until at least 1851.
She lived there with her daughter Sarah known as Sally.
By 1856 the White Hart was being run by her son Henry and she and her
daughter had moved to the White Horse Inn – see separate history.
was born in Partney in 1822. In
1841 he was working as an agricultural labourer and lived with his uncle in the
village. By 1851 he was working in
his uncle’s shop as a grocer and draper’s assistant. The 1856 White’s Directory shows him as innkeeper of the
White Hart. The 1861 Census records
ten occupants of the property compared to the two in his mother’s time!
There is Henry and his wife Julia, their four children aged 4 months to
15 years of age, a servant, a nursemaid and two boarders.
By 1871 Henry had moved to Ivy Cottage in Hundleby where he lived with
his housekeeper. He died in 1883.
We can’t be sure how long Everett
English was landlord.
He is recorded in Kellys Directory of 1868 as innkeeper. He was born in Hammeringham in 1824 and in 1861 is working as
a butcher in Billinghay. After
leaving the White Hart is shown on the 1871 Census as a farmer of 60 acres in
Burgh-le-Marsh. By 1881 he had
moved to Addlethorpe living on his own means and then in 1891 is shown resident
in Louth. He died in 1895.
was born in Halton, Lincolnshire in 1829. By
1841 the family had moved to Fulletby. The 1851 Census shows John working as a waggoner at Farm
House, Strubby, and ten years later he is employed as an ostler and brewer at
his mother’s inn in Bridge Street, Horncastle.
He married Joanna Turner in 1867 in Horncastle and moved to the White
Hart by 1871. After leaving the
White Hart he moved to 19 Louth Road, Horncastle and worked as a general
labourer and then an agricultural labourer.
He died in 1898.
was born in Carrington, Lincolnshire in 1825.
He married Aviss Kirk in 1845 in Horncastle. By 1861 he is recorded as the Innkeeper of the Red Lion Inn
in the High Street, Wainfleet All Saints where he also works as a butcher.
He is still there in 1871 before moving to the White Hart where he is
recorded living with his wife, his sister Rebecca Freer, his grandson Edward
Shadford and a servant. By 1891 he has moved on to the Massingbird Arms at
South Ormsby, Lincolnshire where he is now a brewer and farmer as well as the
innkeeper. He died in 1900.
was the sister of
William Tasker and shown as the innkeeper of the White Hart on the 1891 Census.
She lived here with three lodgers and a servant.
She was born in Carrington in 1821.
She is possibly the Rebecca Farrer shown on the 1871 Census living in the
Green Man in East Ham, London with her husband William, a licensed victualler.
is shown as the innkeeper in the 1892 Kelly’s Directory. It
is difficult to establish who this is but it would be nice think it could be the
John Johnson born in 1822 in Hartford, Huntingdon who in 1891 was living at the
Red Lion Inn in Partney where his son was Albert was the innkeeper.
By 1901 he was 80 years old living on Scremby Road, Partney.
innkeeper at the
1901 Census was born in Wood Enderby in 1874.
He lived with is brother-in-law, the wonderfully named Eusebius B
Vintner, a miller in Wood Enderby in 1881.
By 1891 he was working as a farm servant to the Randall family in Gibbet
Hills, Swineshead, Boston, Lincolnshire. He
married Jean Clark Dickie in Gainsborough in 1899.
She was born in Airdrie, Scotland and in 1881 lived with her family at
Llay Hall Cottages in Gwersyllth, Denbighshire, Wales.
She must have had a wonderful accent!
John Widdowson had
taken over as innkeeper by 1905 according to the Kelly’s Directory for that
year. He was born in 1858 in
Nottinghamshire and worked as a wheelwright in Sutton-le-Marsh (now known
as Sutton on Sea) before taking over the White Hart.
Thomas Charles Scott Baker had taken over by 1909 according to the Kelly’s of that
year. Research continues.
There is no entry for the White
Hart in Kelly’s Directory of 1913 and we must therefore assume it had closed
above photo was taken in the latter days of the White Horse.
The sign over the door shows Edward Pawson as licensed retailer of
“Beer, Porter & Tobacco”
earliest record of The White Horse is found on the 1851 census where George
Wright is recorded as a victualler. There
is no entry in the 1856 White’s Directory and indeed no later directory
records the name of the public house and its landlords are only recorded as
“beer house keeper”.
1st December 1919 Soulby Sons & Winch Ltd, brewers of Alford,
sold the premises to the Trustees for the Partney Victory Memorial Hall
Committee. The Village Hall was
opened on the site in April 1921.
of the landlords of the pub have been extracted from a number of local
directories and national Census records as follows:
George Wright was
born in 1824 in Claxby, Lincolnshire. He
is shown on the 1851 Census as a victualler and is living in the White Horse
with his sister Elizabeth Wright and two servants.
was born in 1845 in
Skendleby, Lincolnshire, where he lived with his family.
His father was a coal dealer in 1851 but by 1871 was farming 5 acres in
Skendleby. Henry is first recorded as the innkeeper of the White
Horse on the 1881 Census where he lives with his wife Sally. By 1891 he is described as Innkeeper and General Merchant.
The local directories still refer to him as a Beer Retailer.
By 1896 the Kelly’s Directory
Smalley as a beer retailer. He
was born in 1859 in Skendleby and was working as a groom in Leather Lane,
Spilsby in 1881. By 1891 he had
moved to Chapel Square, Spilsby and was working as a gardener.
After leaving the White Horse he moved to Stockport where the 1901 Census
shows him working as a life insurance agent.
was born in 1848 in
Stickney, Lincolnshire. The 1901
Census records him as Beer House Keeper and General Labourer, living at the
White Horse with his wife and two children.
He had been working as a porter in Manchester in 1871 before moving to
‘near Partney Mill’ in 1881 and working as an agricultural labourer.
By 1891 he still lives near the Mill working as an agricultural labourer
but by now his wife Emma is a common lodging house keeper and they have four
lodgers in addition to themselves and their four children!
William Edwin Whitworth was born in 1876 in Gosberton, Lincolnshire. He was living at Spain Place, Boston in 1891 working as a
shepherd. By 1901 he had moved to
Fishtoft Road, Skirbeck, Boston and worked alongside his father s an Ostler and
Edward Pawson was probably the last landlord of the White Horse. He was born in 1869 in Boston, Lincolnshire. By 1881 he was living at 10 Fydell Street, Boston with his mother and stepfather. He started work as a painter and decorator and married Lucy Ann Whitworth in Boston in 1898. They lived at 16 Argyle Street, Boston in 1901 and the 1911 Census shows them living at the White Hart with their son and daughter.